At Saint Joseph’s, the Borough, we teach phonics using the Letters and Sounds Programme, a phonics resource published by the Department for Education and Skills in 2007. It is a systematic approach for teaching children to read using phonics. We aim to build children’s speaking and listening skills, as well preparing children for learning to read by developing their phonic knowledge and skills. Letters and Sounds is split into six phases, from starting to learn about sounds in Nursery to becoming fully fluent readers in Year 2. Phase 1 begins in Nursery, phases 2, 3 and 4 are taught in Reception and consolidated in Year 1. Children are then taught phase 5 in Year 1 and phase 6 in Year 2. The alphabet contains only 26 letters. Spoken English uses about 44 sounds (phonemes). These phonemes are represented by letters (graphemes). In other words, a sound can be represented by a letter (e.g. ‘s’ or ‘h’) or a group of letters (e.g. ‘th’ or ‘igh’). Traditionally, children were taught letter names like ay, bee, sea from the start. However, letter names don’t always represent their pronunciation.